Friday, 13 July 2007
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is defined as causing joint inflammation and stiffness for more than six weeks in children under 16 years of age. It is estimated that between 30,000 and 50,000 children in the United States have JRA, making it the most common rheumatic disorder among this age group. Although the causes of JRA are not well understood and no cure exists, medications are available to reduce swelling and pain. In contrast to adults with rheumatoid arthritis, who typically have lifelong symptoms, more than half of those children with JRA will outgrow the disease. Complicating the diagnosis of JRA is the fact that many adult forms of arthritis and rheumatic diseases—including systemic lupus erythematosus, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and dermatomyositis—can begin in childhood. If you think that your child has symptoms of RA, do not delay. Make an appointment for your child to see the doctor. Three different types of JRA have been classified according to their symptoms and the number of joints involved: Pauciarticular. Four or fewer joints are affected in this form of JRA, also known as oligoarthritis. This type of JRA is five times more prevalent among girls than among boys. Pauciarticular JRA is the most common form of the disorder, seen in about half of all children with JRA. Pauciarticular disease usually affects large joints, most commonly the knees. Involvement of other parts of the body is unusual, with the exception of the eyes. About 20% of affected children develop eye disease. While many children with pauciarticular disease outgrow arthritis by adulthood, eye problems can continue, and joint symptoms may recur in some people. Some children have special proteins in the blood called antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). Up to 80% of those with eye disease also test positive for ANA, and the disease tends to develop at an earlier age in these children. Regular eye examinations are necessary to prevent serious eye problems. Polyarticular. About one-third of all children with JRA have polyarticular disease, with three times more girls affected than boys. In this type of JRA, five or more joints are involved. The arthritis typically affects large joints such as knees, wrists, elbows, and ankles, as well as smaller joints in the hands and feet. Polyarticular JRA often affects the same joint on both sides of the body. Some children with a special kind of antibody in their blood called rheumatoid factor (RF) often have a more severe form of the disease. Systemic. High, spiking fevers and a rash mark this form of JRA, sometimes called Stills disease. About 20% of children with JRA have this type. It is seen in roughly equal numbers of boys and girls. In addition to joint involvement, internal organs such as the heart, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes can be affected. What causes juvenile rheumatoid arthritis? Like adult rheumatoid arthritis, JRA is considered to be an autoimmune disease—that is, the body mistakenly identifies some of its own cells and tissues as foreign. The immune system, which normally helps to fight off harmful invaders such as bacteria or viruses, begins to attack healthy tissues. The result is inflammation, marked by redness, heat, pain, and swelling. The cause of JRA may vary in different children. Doctors do not yet understand what causes the immune system to malfunction, but genetic factors and viruses have been suggested to play a role. Medications for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Some of the medications used to treat adult rheumatoid arthritis are used to treat JRA as well. But children may respond to drugs differently than adults, and dosage adjustments are necessary based on the age and weight of the child. The goal of treatment is to relieve pain, reduce swelling, maintain movement and activity in affected joints, and slow the progression of the disease. Many children with JRA will also need physical therapy to achieve these goals.
Why so many pyramids
written by Kumar , December 26, 2007
U used 10,000 pyramids in your place. It costs a lot to have so many. Even Rs. 15 per would mean Rs. 15,00,000.
How expensive is it for a flat of 2,000 sq.ft
Response from Premal Betai: You may require to contribute anywhere between Rs.2000 to Rs.5000 for a flat of 2000 square feet.